Consolidating democracy in latin america Free 3g swx chat rooms
Moving away from arguments about preconditions, Alexander 2002 presents a theory of consolidation based on the strategic choices of political elites.
Schedler 2001 and Munck and Verkuilen 2002 discuss issues related to the conceptualization of democracy and the measurement of consolidation.
During that interval, no democracy had permanently succumbed to a military coup or slid back into authoritarian rule.
The Chávez phenomenon has had strong demonstration and contagion effects beyond Venezuela.Although democratic consolidation can be the endpoint of democratization, it is important to understand that these two processes are generally driven by different factors (see the Oxford Bibliographies article on political science “Democratization”).This article focuses on the institutional, economic, social, and international causes of democratic consolidation as distinct from democratization.Paradoxically, however, long-lasting democracies do not seem to be immune from a degradation in the quality of their democracy.Inspired by the recent rise of populist parties and candidates in some of the world’s oldest democracies, scholars have turned to studying the reasons for democratic rollback and deconsolidation.
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Economic deterioration, political ossification, and rampant corruption had brought sustained decay, however, and paved the way for this radical populist, former army officer, and would-be (he had led a violent putsch that failed in February 1992) to decisively win the free and fair December 1998 balloting.